### Cylinder Blind End Area (in square inches)

Formula: π x (Cylinder Radius)2 = square inches
Example: What is the area of a 6" diameter cylinder?

### Cylinder Rod End Area (in square inches)

Formula: Blind End Area - Rod Area = square inches
Example: What is the rod end area of a 6" diameter cylinder which has a 3" diameter rod?

### Cylinder Output Force (in pounds)

Formula: Pressure (in PSI) x Cylinder Rod End Area = Force in pounds
Example: What is the pull force of a 6" diameter cylinder with a 3" diameter rod operating at 2,500 PSI?

### Fluid Pressure in PSI Required to Lift Load (in PSI)

Formula: Pounds of Force Needed ÷ Cylinder Area = PSI
Example: What pressure is needed to develop 50,000 pounds of push force from a 6" diameter cylinder?
Formula: Pounds of Force Needed ÷ Cylinder Area = PSI
Example: What pressure is needed to develop 50,000 pounds of pull force from a 6" diameter cylinder which has a 3" diameter rod?

### Cylinder Speed (in inches per second)

Formula: (231 x GPM) ÷ (60 x Net Cylinder Area) = inches/second
Example: How fast will a 6" diameter cylinder with a 3" diameter rod extend with 15 gpm input?
Formula: (231 x GPM) ÷ (60 x Net Cylinder Area) = inches/second
Example: How fast will it retract?

### GPM of Flow Needed for Cylinder Speed

Formula: Cylinder Area x Stroke Length in Inches ÷ 231 x 60 ÷ Time in seconds for one stroke = GPM
Example: How many GPM are needed to extend a 6" diameter cylinder 8 inches in 10 seconds?
Formula: Cylinder Area x Stroke Length in Inches ÷ 231 x 60 ÷ Time in seconds for one stroke = GPM
Example: If the cylinder has a 3" diameter rod, how many gpm is needed to retract 8 inches in 10 seconds?

### Cylinder Blind End Output (GPM)

Formula: Blind End Area ÷ Rod End Area x GPM In = GPM Out
Example: How many GPM come out the blind end of a 6" diameter cylinder with a 3" diameter rod when there is 15 gallons per minute put in the rod end?

*Pneumatic and Hydraulic Company, LLC assumes no liability for errors in data nor in safe and/or satisfactory operation of equipment designed from this information.